About this Show

Book TV

Jefferson Morley Education. (2012) 'Snow Storm in August Washington City, Francis Scott Key, and the Forgotten Race Riot of 1835.'

NETWORK

DURATION
01:00:00

RATING

SCANNED IN
San Francisco, CA, USA

SOURCE
Comcast Cable

TUNER
Channel 91 (627 MHz)

VIDEO CODEC
mpeg2video

AUDIO CODEC
ac3

PIXEL WIDTH
704

PIXEL HEIGHT
480

TOPIC FREQUENCY

Washington 34, Francis Scott 11, Beverly 9, Pennsylvania 4, Mrs. Thornton 4, Jackson 4, Barack Obama 3, U.s. 3, Washington D.c. 3, William Lloyd Garrison 2, Minneapolis 2, Toronto 2, Obama 2, Us 2, Philadelphia 2, New York 2, Paul 1, Trump 's 1, Isaac 1, Oliver 1,
Borrow a DVD
of this show
  CSPAN    Book TV    Jefferson Morley  Education.  (2012) 'Snow Storm in August  
   Washington City, Francis Scott Key, and the Forgotten Race...  

    September 1, 2012
    5:00 - 6:00pm EDT  

5:00pm
wood hal, and victoria was quite
5:01pm
the number of years. she was married off at age 14, divorced, and then remarried. in her later years she did leave this country and move to a england where she was very honored and appreciated. at that point in time, destruction. she was the free love candidate, for crying out loud. that was pre radical for her date. >> what is the importance of having a library like this? >> well, i think there are several important reasons. one, it records what is happening in our time. it preserves the work of a
5:02pm
favorite author from one . and this day and age, well, the book last. everything go electronic? i don't think so. i think there will always be a place for a paper book. but when you are looking at an electronic, so much can be lost. one of the fears i have is, i look at our collection. maybe skips that we have to show the writing process. now information is exchanged between a publisher and an author electronically. there is no record. the same is true with photographs. we have photographs that are 50, 60, 70 years old in perfect condition. now what we are getting from people are digital images. we don't have the means of saving that, and i'm afraid some of those will be lost. >> for more of permission on
5:03pm
book tv recent visit to columbus, ohio, and other cities on the local content vehicle to work, visit c-span.org / local content. this weekend on book tv on the c-span2 join the conversation. your calls, e-mails, and treats for presidential historian michael-loss. live sunday at noon. and at 3:00, books by and about barack obama. from earlier this year we take book tv along for the research and writing of his tenth book, barack obama, the story. that is followed by a 2004 appearance by then senator obama. >> all i knew about my father, for the most part, during my company was the stories that my mother told me. i had all whole mythology about who he was. fortunately the mythologies that my mother fed me was a very positive image. so i write about the fact that in the book i drew up with an
5:04pm
image of us strong black man who just did not happen to be in the house. >> the book is dreams for my father. book tv this weekend on c-span2. up next, jefferson morley recounts the first race right in washington d.c. which took place in august of 1835. the two subsequent criminal trials by d.c.'s district attorney, francis scott key. he authored the star spangled banner and defended slavery in his prosecution and it sought capital punishment only to be thwarted by the alleged victim whose late husband designed to the u.s. capitol. this is just over 50 minutes. [applause] >> they key event but. and they give for hosting this event. i suggest that this, back in the winter.
5:05pm
there was never anything less than enthusiastic. this was not always my destination when i came from the minneapolis bookstore, and i'm glad i landed here. some want to tell you a little about the book. i'm going to read a little about the book. many old familiar faces. you know, whenever i come back from minneapolis i have this feeling of what a special place. at think there are probably a few people here who will at least remember the place, if not agree with me. and so it is always nice to be back with old friends. i've really take myself. i even attended an advanced placement class at the old west as cool which was right down here. you have to be really old to remember when weston's school was there. [laughter]
5:06pm
you know, people have asked me a lot. they said, you know, why did you write this book? it is so long ago and so obscure. i usually say because it is just a great story. just the story of what happens. the events themselves are so amazing. as a writer, as a fiction writer i would never dare touch make them up, the kind of plot twists that this book has. when i realized that they had all happened at about that was really terrific. and so it was such a great story, but as i got into the book out realized, there was actually more to attend at. and the book actually had an even more profound message, and that was that this book takes place between the revolutionary war, the founding, you know, the founding of the country in the late 18th century and the civil war which are the two great times in american history that could written about a lot, the american revolution and the civil war. in between, you know, kind of
5:07pm
ignored. and what i realized as i was writing this book. pretty much everything that you know about that time and everything that you have been taught about that time is flat wrong. it is completely wrong. and so i realize that part of this book is to a tell people that. everything you touch you understood about this time is wrong. so if you think of washington in 1835, 25 years before the civil war, you know, what would you think? you would think, well, you know, slavery was well entrenched. the black people are miserable. the whites were kind of cruel and indifferent. and that is actually not true of all. washington, and washington, about 30,000 people that as a city. 12,000 of them were black. the majority of the people actually in 1830 or free. i saved. out of the 12,000 by people
5:08pm
sleigh more than half for free. some more prosperous and others were getting there fast. the man who owned a big stable two blocks from the white house. and he served forces to the city's taxi trade. he was a free black man from madagascar. two brothers, thomas and isaac carried. they're under a couple of barbershops on pennsylvania avenue. it came from other family that had been free for generations. many of them had own slaves. anti slavery publications. the hero of the book ran the city's finest restaurant.
5:09pm
barack obama's of the head of his time. very clever, intelligence mixed-race man. parker and charm washington, serve the washington elite what they want only to face a tremendous backlash. fall from slavery being dominant washington d.c. the forces of liberty. that is really what this book is about. the second thing, you probably think the civil war, again, april 1861 with the gunfire at fort sumter. that is when the shooting of the civil war began. it is in this time in the early 1800's that the antislavery
5:10pm
movement first comes to washington. the director of ideological conflict that leads to the civil war, the conflict between the people who are for slavery and the conflict for the people who are against it, it actually starts in this time in washington. that is not something utah minister book. jesse from the story at essentially the case, and that's what happened. so it is this band of people, the kerry brothers, beverly's no who a actually of the one to really start the fight against slavery that leads to the civil war in the great expansion of american freedom . they had to a white friends, a man named ben lundy, an itinerant editor who traveled around the country and a kind of like a familiar face.
5:11pm
he had an antislavery newspaper called a genius of universal emancipation. most of the newspapers of the day, the msn of the day really avoided the slavery issue. they didn't really want to get into it. he recorded. there was, you know, killing. here is of these slaves escaped. here is how the church is kayten. rihanna investigative reporting. quite unprecedented at the time. antislavery sentiment, this movement stressed ago in washington. for enough money to hire a new assistance. william lloyd garrison teaches how to be a journalist. went on to become the most famous abolitionist editor.
5:12pm
the only important thing at francis scott key did was write the lyrics to the star spangled banner. he went on too long and very interesting career in politics which is completely unknown to most people. francis scott key was kind of a modern washington character after he became famous in a teefourteen for writing the star spangled banner. he did what people in washington usually do, parlay fame into a lucrative law practice. then he parlayed his lucrative law practice in to political connections and and he parlayed his political connections into a job. and that was the culmination of francis scott key's political career in 1833 when he was appointed to be the district attorney for the city of washington.
5:13pm
and what he did in that time, i wouldn't say it was as smith in as root and the star spangled banner which was obviously an enduring feet, but it was very important to. an unknown factor of francis scott key is that his best friend and brother-in-law of was a man named roger carney. and he was very politically ambitious. with his help he ascended to jobs and the administration of andrew jackson. first key helped carney become u.s. attorney general. then in 1836 the chief justice of the supreme court went on to write the dress that decision in 1857 which effectively legalized slavery and hastened the coming of the civil war. they were inseparable political figures and employ an important
5:14pm
in the way it has been so forgotten. there is a key bridge which crosses the potomac river. recovery is, a park where he used to live. and in the park there are lots of exhibits that are devoted to him. it is one that says active in anti slavery causes. this is five wrong. it would be much more accurate to say that he was active in suppressing antislavery causes. part of this, will we don't want to remember about our own history. i don't want to give the wrong impression. this book is not a polemical book, not up to score points. mostly up to tell this amazing story of the events of washington in 1837 and 18:36 p.m. on the night of
5:15pm
august 4th 183-5177 years. when a young man, seven, 19 year-old african-american man stumbles into the bedroom of his mistress of the woman who owns them, and a marie a fortune in the middle of the night carrying anax. her servant that mother of the boy who'd stumbled into the room. so the two women wake up, screamed. others outside yelling and shouting that he wants to be free. he's going to be free. the neighbors gather. arthur runs away. the words began to spread. attacked in her bedroom. a slave to the next. in this report comes at of very tense time in washington.
5:16pm
burgeoning antislavery movement is distributing intensive republications to everybody in town for the first time the antislavery movement is really impressing upon people the reality of slavery with these kind of red reports. very detailed about what is really involved and the brutality of slavery. and so on long of the blacks in the abolitionist whites this is overdue, but among all lot of whites they feared that this is the first shot and a slave rebellion. and that arthur was part of the slave rebellion in attacking this. when arthur turns himself in a few days later and says, have no memory of what happened, he is whisked off to jail. trying to lend charter, demanding that he be turned over so that he can be hung on the spot. francis scott key come to the defense of the jail and is trying to all back the crowd,
5:17pm
but to get overrun when fortunately the secretary of the navy calls in, the marines from the navy yard and marched down pennsylvania avenue, surround the jail and push the crowd back and protect the jail so that arthur will not be lynched. turn their fury on every other free black person in town. and so the mobs began to split up and attack the people, any black people that have property, black churches, black schools, black or houses, a place for black people gathered to of the moms are going to destroy it including first and foremost beverly snows restaurant which is a symbol, the symbol in washington of black success. the restaurant is right in the heart of town at the corner of sixth -- sixth and pennsylvania frequented by politicians, said
5:18pm
it estimates congressman. i society. beverly snow is a well-known and respected character. the mob in its fear of this anti slavery movement and its fear of a slave insurrection in his fear of black success attacks now. he knew there was trouble coming, and he manages to escape and get away, but the mob trashes his restaurant, and drink sells liquor composite out and goes on his rampage in distress the city. it's quite a shocking event. totally forgotten in the history of washington. one reason i decided to write the book was test people if they have heard of the right there 1835 in washington. i never met anybody you had. completely forgotten. when you read the newspapers you realize what a shocking event it was. the worst thing that happened in washington says the british had invaded in 1924. they came in and destroy the
5:19pm
white house and the library of congress and all that. this was comparable damage, but it had not been inflicted by a foreign army. it had been infected by americans themselves. a lot of shame and remorse about how this could happen, of recriminations. and so francis scott key is determined to pursue the agenda of the jackson administration which is to make sure that the slave quarter is safe in owners are safe for their property, that they're not going to run away. and so he does district attorney has the job of establishing law-and-order. he does this in a couple of ways. the first thing that he does is puts arthur bowen on trial for the attpted murder of mrs. thorne. he also arrests and puts on trial a white abolitionists, antislavery men from new york, dr. who had been burning a
5:20pm
truckload of anti slavery publications to washington. and keep wanted to send the message step not just the antislavery forces in washington but to the anti slavery forces overran the country. your activities will not be tolerated at all. and so that -- the book tells the story of father wright comes to pass and then the story of the criminal trials that followed. so when arthur goes on trial in december of 1835 very eager to win a conviction. by this time mrs. thornton has come forward and come to the defense of her alleged assailant. she says in the child carfare never lifted the ax, she never believed that he intended to hurt her. she felt safe in his presence. he was just drunk and that she wanted the whole thing to go away. he was implacable, and he did
5:21pm
not listen to this. he managed to get other people to override a just money. there was only one purpose of that. with the clock ticking now she goes out and starts recruiting earth friends in high society. she was a very prominent woman with many preference. easy access to the of the country. when the vice-president bendery. use your good offices with the president, president jackson, tell them that he should pardon
5:22pm
our third. very good. you know, as she said, the the crime. and that she could not contemplate that arthur would be executed. of rectory joel part of the book. search for a way to quell the fear of death. heal for a pardon but had to be ready. he had to admit the truth. he had a right to be free and liquor would destroy the freedom . of course he had no intention. but tracking the sudden passion
5:23pm
of the murder he was a schoolteacher who had kind of advice arthur of wasting his freedom. if you want to be free after it learned to read and write and stop drinking. condemned himself. for that he had to take responsibility. he sat thinking but his friends from the racetrack. each moment perris lynyrd. plunged ahead and into temptation is dreadful way. he admitted his folly and
5:24pm
scorning the teachings of his elders. nothing today ever drink the liquor very strong, laugh i never used to think that i was doing wrong. to me was read the awful cents a dreadful and my years of rent. they gave me time for my repentance and then i must be hanged. goodbye, goodbye my friend so dear. may god almighty please you all. do as you please. cit but a tear. copies circulated. the editor of the metropolitan which was a newspaper in georgetown pronounced it a very credible. everyone in washington seem to know that the personal petition for clemency to arthur had been presented. aston to exercise that mercy which is in his power alone. the georgetown metropolitan is the deepest and anxiety.
5:25pm
i'll leave it there. [laughter] i want to close with one no. the book was reviewed and the washington post. took issue with that argument i made in the book which is that as a spend more and more time writing a book, more and more similarity between the politics of the 1830's our politics today i said that the red bull politics if you look, every jets and this time. and i disagree. >> strongly with their reviewers contention. leaders may find the element of the book jaring beginning with the assertion that closely --
5:26pm
pro and anti slavery forces in the 1830's resemble the political division. i totally disagree. the point that in the book. they revolve around the timeless issues of american politics and as a surprise that they are the same. in the 1830's that argument revolves around slavery. did people have the right to own property and people? traditional and the force that are in favor of more progress rights to a maximum property rights were in favor of the maximum property rights. the liberal forces which are traditionally, more restrictive view of property rights said to
5:27pm
mothers no such thing as property. likewise in the debates about citizenship. part of the debate of slavery was a debate of a citizenship. did they have the right to be citizens to back the they deserve the right to be citizens? then as now the conservatives took the restrictive position. american citizenship is reserved for a small native-born americans. also free speech. when francis scott key is prosecuting the antislavery movement the anti slavery argument of the tepid still have today. no, we have to restrict. protective safety. we will have slave rebellion and we will all be insecure. we need to restrict free speech
5:28pm
rights. that is the same argument that the conservatives make today. they should be maximal and we should worry less of the safety and more about preserving free-speech. that is a very strong theme that runs throughout the book. some people disagree with it. stopping distances of questions. >> when did you first come across this piece of history? how long did you nurture before you decided to write a book. >> 1998, a reporter at the washington post working on a story of an era of historic
5:29pm
first heard that there have been a race riot. i felt that was really interesting. went around and ask people. did you ever know of this race right? the washington post in 2005. i thought it was such a great story. the chance that i would read all book about it. no job. write that book. had been nurturing along. i thought i will read a book about the sunday. when i got the contract that was three years ago. took about two years to research
5:30pm
impressive book.rí >> william lloyd garrison. being tutored. was he in washington? >> what they did that nobody had ever done in american journalism before was go out and write about specific slave traders. nobody had ever done thisvvñ before. arisen with were publishing in baltimore which was a bigger slave trading town. they both wrote articles about difference led traders temecula, both of them. that is what they wrote about.
5:31pm
beat
5:32pm
they supplemented there and kim by kidnapping free blacks and selling them into slavery. the woman ran away. two bella the potomac and drowned. so he wrote an article. here's what happened. here's the name of the constable. district attorney is in, to do something about it. congress should. he hit the roof. when on and charged him and his printer, another white man who helped him run of the copies. electronic drive. the anti slavery people up. one to get rid of the antislavery forces. he was facing $1,000 fine.
5:33pm
$20,000 to $100,000. so collected one meal from his friends and took off and went to philadelphia. that was key. >> mainstream press. to bring this whole thing. >> there were a lot of papers of the time. three daily newspapers. three different tendencies. now part of washington d.c.
5:34pm
the 11 newspapers. there were aligned with political factions in the government. so they would talk about -- the8 politics of slavery.w9w8w8 above the experience of slavery; they would never read and edit. >> the trial.7:wx6= >> the race riot was very wellv8 covered. it was very shocking.wz7xwx7x nobody expected that to happen,] and there was a lot of recrimination and debate.6]wxw: he was responsible.6]wzw:78 the white working men, the riot8 was attributed in the newspaper: to what were called mechanics.7x a mechanic was in the kind of588
5:35pm
working man.7:78 the selig our conception of and on a mechanic.w:w8 any manual worker.7:7:7:w;v8 when the mechanics get together some of the7:m said, how dare y8 say that we did this.u8 we didn't do that. that was covered. nobody ever wrote about what happened, but you can tell in reading the newspapers. tech got advertisements all the time. that was the chief way theyu85xy figured and who he was becauseu8 these ads were witty, changed all the time, and disclosed all of his personality.uxu8 when push came to shove nobody5ñ -- know what authorities wanted to be seen inw8 a position of defending the free blacks. and so that was why -- that was why the public authority kind of collapsed. nobody wanted to be seen as doing that. the newspapers are part of it.
5:36pm
there really didn't want to touch the issue. >> turns campaign, well, they could not ignore her. very prominent. her husband had designed the u.s. capitol. a very close friend of george washington's, close friend of thomas jefferson. a leading lady in society. and so well that it would not write about what she was joined directly and in that part, you could tell the word had gone around that mrs. thornton was trying to a help arthur. so that it was -- you could kind of see that. no one ever wrote an article about that. you heard intimations of that throughout the press coverage at the time. >> a couple of questions. you have talked a lot about the different parallels between then and now.
5:37pm
i guess i would be interested, the rates then and now. what parallels you might see. also, i am talking about then and now. condemned to repeat history. is that you're -- is that your conclusion? something that we can learn from? >> i mean, no. i think -- yes. central. and when i talk about those principles, you know, that we debate, the liberal conservative division, you know, race runs through them. and that is a big part of it. i mean, one thing that is remarkable about this story, inauguration day when president obama was coming up pennsylvania avenue and gets out as such walking down the street. i'm like, oh, my god.
5:38pm
the restaurant. and nobody noticed. not even barack obama himself. this is like the quintessential obama story. nobody knows it. and i think to me, this is not treacly contents your question, but this idea of just success written out of history. it is sort of religiously forgotten. and that is my only explanation for why this story has been -- is not known, why nobody knows the story. the right of 1835. i we condemned to repeat is? well, i think that the obama continuities run very deep. the backlash against obama, very beverly's no. adelle see any other with a look
5:39pm
still there. they haven't changed that much. >> beyond the scope of the book, but is there any organized or vocalized response from the black community itself in washington? >> basically everybody running and hiding. >> there was. in fact, the barber, probably beverly's knows best friend and had a right next to the restaurant. bob lawsuit. there was a crackdown on black businesses after all this happened. perversely the white authorities , the response for their white riot was step cut down on black businessmen. selling perfume and his barber shop.
5:40pm
c-span2 to keep his license. he won that case. the riot was very discouraging from washington. a lot of the most able and successful blacks left and went to toronto. beverly snow and william walker who was his business partner wound up in toronto. the carrier brothers. so it was kind of an exodus. they have really reached the limits of what was possible in washington. they had seen that there were not going to be allowed to go any farther. they moved on. >> the research. the frustrations, trump's. >> well, i've always know, your question, i was going to do this book. one reason, the sources were so interesting. so many good sources. the first and foremost was an
5:41pm
important call by the time the story takes place, 55 years old. she has been keeping a diary of your life for close to 40 years. pretty much wrote down every day, you know, five days a week, six days a week what happened at a life. this is not an emotional diary. see is not a confessional or express a type of person, but she just said what happened in a life. mr. adams, that was john quincy adams, the former president, came over and play chess. i read -- she read mary shelley's frankenstein. she taught that was very. she went to the market and paid $0.12 for a dozen next. she wrote down everything that she -- oliver purchases. recreating daily life, this was an extraordinary source, and it made me realize that i was going to be a will to recreate daily life and a very intimate,
5:42pm
realistic way. write a book about congress and politicians. i want to read a book about the way people lived in washington. this became a kind of mission of mind. this research. write a book that was about living in washington. the daily newspapers were in abundant source of estimations is because there were some many of them. you had these different tendencies, so there would look at things slightly differently. you could get a lot of them permission that way. i spent time in the national archives. i found the doctor book of the court, the circuit court the time. you find out who was breaking the law and how they were breaking the law, who was suing each other, how business is one bad. you could really get a sense of the texture of daily life. and then finally, the property tax records which were also in these big volumes. their i could track, you know, i
5:43pm
can see beverly snow getting richer by the year. comes to town and has nothing. after the first serious $100, the second year 200, 3300. so they're making $300 a year at that time, is starting to move into the middle-class. you could track characters that way. so that was another way that i really, you know, learned a lot about the characters that are in this book. and then there was francis scott key himself to, you know, everybody knows his name. yet there has not been a biography of princess 1939. and so there was a lot of francis scott key that was lying around. and when i was doing this research i found in that efforts many indictments, you know, in my hands i have 100 autographs of francis scott key.
5:44pm
so that was, you know, that was -- that thing that i think i am most, figuring out who beverly's northwester his advertisements because he left no records. he left no diary of letters. or ever he when he seemed to attract attention because people always had an intense about him. they really did not know that much about him until -- i had seen some of the ads about it was interested in and realize the need to go back and read every single newspaper and get every single at because that is going to be where he stressed himself. in paris, very funny and you get a sense of the man. one of my favorite ads. he was selling the idea of health food in the 1830's. it's only good, but it's good for you. beverly smell was a master of self-promotion. he was great at it.
5:45pm
as self invented american. i think that is really the thing that i liked most about this book. this person knew nobody knew existed actually comes to light and realize what a great an unusual person was. and there he is on the pages of the book. >> to you, filed the book all at once? did you start to compile the book as you went and then revive it. overwhelmed at times with all the reading, affirmation. >> says. well, i did it. i had written the article, the magazine article. i had expressed. when i started to write the book and decided i would not write to vestar writing wide awake. spent about nine months just research. and then just -- the idea was to get everything in place and don't try and start to. then once i had that in place of was that overwhelmed. i mean, it took awhile. there were three draft of this
5:46pm
book, threefold different versions of the. so it took awhile to get it under control and figure out what was most important and what could be cut out. in one version was 700 pages long. that was later, by the end it was probably 300 man is cribs pages. a lot of left out, was your very lucky. [applause] [laughter] . >> what i did was made a file, a separate file folder for the key time of the book was is 1835 and 1837. the folder for every day for the year. and every newspaper article i would put it in said -- would put it to that, and so then when
5:47pm
my kid just pull out all we can have all of the newspaper articles, my notes in a row. ready to sell a story like that. the have a horror of a blank pages a writer. you never want to sit down and look at a blank page. you don't know where to begin or what to do. you want to have good notes in front of the. really what you're doing is adding the notes and turned them into pros. that is delicate going on it. >> copy. under computer. i like having paper copies. library of congress, you could only make photocopies. machine where you could make pds so i had at some point.
5:48pm
i had to parallels. it was kind of inefficient, but it was just that was the only way to do it. and then there were things that i have found in waters and things like that that i would make copies of but never turn them into things to go into the computer. >> of indigested and the texture, the change in the city of washington. 1835, 30,000 people. 12,000 african-americans. of the 12,000 how many are free to back. >> 6,000 plus. the majority. fifty. >> other is an exodus after this event. what changes? >> well, actually, that trend continues. a free black population and
5:49pm
washington the continues to grow. and back, by the beginning of the civil war three black people of members' lives in washington by 41. in the next 20 years. you have to understand. if you were a black person in freedom he had to leave the state within a year by law or you could be sold back into slavery. and so those people, once they got, there were not going to go to boston or new york even all, philadelphia was up four or five day ride at best then it is an alien culture, not a southern culture. there were jobs there, and system of slavery in washington, again, big surprise. this was not plantation slavery. mrs. thornton had bag servants
5:50pm
who she honed. he was her driver. he was kind of the jack of all trades to get the house up and fix the wagons and did all that. well, george had a life who was freed in georgetown. for kids who were free. he would go home and night. in the morning he would go. surrey was a slave who commuted. [laughter] that was one of the variations of slavery. their owners who hire them out you be hired at to the owner of a hotel. be a waiter in the hotel. the honor of the hotel would pay your honor, your wages. you were there. you could make tips, can show your own time. slavery was a much more fluid thing. that is one reason why the anti slavery movement could get going. because there was more room to operate. this was one of the things that
5:51pm
he was most upset about. this freedom, these zero corners of freedom that the blacks for fighting, everybody understood that was going to be the toll. greater freedom. that was what they were out. that is what they were trying to repress. like us said, this is when the real ideological struggle over slavery begins. the slave power is determined to stamp out the antislavery forces. appeal to the public opinion. >> your commuters, for lack of better term. would that be more like an >> that would still be up to the
5:52pm
beverly snow. never quite figured this out. he had a term written into his be freed when he was 30. and so when he was 30 he bought his freedom for $5, but that was something that had been recognized. he would do and it was legal. there were white indentured bought -- diana by the 1830's. how black people got their freedom, it happened to her waist. sometimes it was given to you, sometimes they freed all their slaves. sometimes they said, you know, the slaves would have to pay the going rate for help the young person. beckham be $800, thousand dollars, which was a lot, lot of money. you could live for a couple of years of thousand dollars.
5:53pm
there were lots of permutations of slavery in washington, lots of rice mixes to. it's amazing to think about. there is no doubt about it. a more racially integrated city in 1835. there was no black neighborhood in washington in 1835. blacks and whites live very much intermingled. neighborhood. that did not exist that time. >> the degree of black literacy? >> it's very hard to tell. john cook was of freed black man he was like the smartest black guy in town. everyone agreed. he was the teacher at the school and organized a little group for
5:54pm
part of. trying to tease them. you want to get out of slavery, years out. he, you know, he had a school. the son of less warm, and the stable also had a school. so there was education, but what percentage. arthur was very well, obviously literate. he could have written that paul. mrs. barton's had taught him to read and write. how, now was, i don't know. i don't really know. but it was not unknown the black people were, you know, lecher. okay. anybody? >> was mrs. thornton in bed in a house with her mother who
5:55pm
was very fond of order as well. in fact, i think she was probably the one who taught arthur how to read and write. s. thornton, her mother, and you can tell from the diary that and and maria were very close. there were very dependent on
5:56pm
>> recorded in her diary, last night he came in with the axe. decelerates. it all comes down to what president jackson thinks. a handwritten letter whole event. everything that follows. you get a very -- you learn firsthand exactly what she saw and what happened. >> you have access.
5:57pm
the petition filed. the original handwritten. >> to stay here underneath another piece of paper. >> i mean, many. many. i'm sure there there. i'm sure they are. they could be very. i'm still looking for a so i could write another book. >> one of the main lessons you get. was there another one? >> that was -- i mean, that was really the big one. the way history has taught, can be so misleading. the way, the key is to get to
5:58pm
the reality of how people live. not the politics of the way history is traditionally construed. actually what was the day-to-day life of the people like. that is what i can't. okay. well, thank you. >> for more permission to visit the authors website. this week a division of the book publisher penguin announce that they're moving of the release date of mark owens firsthand account of the raid of the compound of osama bin laden. describing the planning that went into the rate in the evening of the attack which resulted in the death of osama bin laden. may 2nd 2011 in pakistan. the book, no easy day, a
5:59pm
firsthand account of the mission that killed osama bin laden will be published this coming tuesday september 4th and was already ranked number one in book sales on the amazon. .. and that by refocusing learning on the acquisition of knowledge, students and schools will be more successful. this is about an hour.